30012019-JC-01.qxd 1/29/2019 5:27 PM Page 1 c m y b CHANDIGARH | WEDNESDAY | 30 JANUARY 2019 A meaningful world of words USHA ALBUQUERQUE Lexicographers are professional linguists who research, write, compile and edit special books such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias or various other reference texts. They design and develop traditional and electronic dictionaries, and help plan the content of dictionaries designed for particular users, deciding what words to include in a dictionary and what words to leave out. They write, compile and edit dictionaries for both print and online publications. SKILLS REQUIRED Lexicographers must have the basic skills of a good writer. They must think clearly and be interested in the world. They must read a lot and know what's going on. They need a good fund of general information. ■ Command over the language ■ Excellent knowledge of grammatical and computational linguistics. English language lexicographers should have the ability to recognise subtle differences between meanings, how English is used in other English-speaking countries and the difficulties of learning English. ■ Good computer knowledge, and the ability to use specialist database software for research purposes. ■ Good research and analytical skills. ■ Ability to work in a team and effective time management and organisational skills. ■ Good critical thinking skills, ■ An eye for detail to spot errors. If you have a fascination for words and you love flipping through dictionaries, then a career as a lexicographer may be just right for you Role and responsibilities A lexicographer works on dictionary entries that cover matters such as pronunciation, definition of grammatical terms, various languages, dialectical variation and etymology. A major responsibility of lexicographers is not just writing definitions but writing the right definitions for the right people. Lexicographers may study the origin of a word or phrase and determine its correct spelling and pronunciation. They perform thorough research into what people are saying and how they are saying it. They compile this research into their findings which they can present for a new word or definition to be included within a dictionary. They study existing dictionaries to see how others have defined a particular word and how its meaning has changed over time. They also could be involved in creating and sourcing add-on material and marketing the whole package online, particularly through social media. The work involves searching specialist databases comprising thousands of pieces of language from a range of sources, including literature, newspapers, online journals, blogs, discussion groups and transcripts of television and radio for evidence of meanings and usages of a word or phrase. The databases can also show how words are used, what the different meanings are for the same word and how they are combined to form new terms or phrases. Using these databases, LEXICOGRAPHY lexicographers can measure how often a specific word is used. They can record how it’s used by a specific segment of the population — teenagers, for instance, or teachers, lawyers or doctors. Work profile Lexicographers work on different types of dictionaries including bilingual, multilingual, educational, historical, biographical, geographical, special dictionaries, etc. The roles and responsibilities, therefore, vary with the type of dictionaries they work for. As a lexicographer you’ll typically need to: ■ Research and identify new words that are in common usage for inclusion in the dictionary. ■ Create new entries using accurate and succinct definitions. ■ Accurately represent the various meanings of new and existing words. ■ Assess which meaning of a word is the primary (most used) meaning and which meanings are secondary or less commonly used. ■ Review and edit existing definitions. ■ Check & proofread entries. ■ Make sure that the style and format of words is in strict accordance with previously agreed protocols. ■ Translate words and expressions in both directions (as a bilingual lexicographer). Bilingual lexicographers must possess skills in two different languages and preferably have a tramsalation background. ■ Technical lexicography involves publishing technical language dictionaries for the legal sector. As nearly all dictionaries are now online and encompass a broad range of related resources, the role is evolving to meet these changes. In these roles, you’re likely to be called a dictionary editor. As a dictionary editor on an online dictionary resource, you’ll also need to: ■ Organise dictionary updates, coordinating the work of freelancers. ■ Create or source add-on materials, such as blogs, slideshows, videos, quizzes, word games and thesauruses. ■ Market the dictionary and its associated resources via GEETU VAID World University of Design (WUD) at Sonepat has been awarded co-funding under the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for their project titled Design and Innovation Capacity Building in India. The UGCrecognised institution is India's first and only university dedicated to education in the creative domain. It is also the youngest university in India to bag an Erasmus+ project. WUD will be leading a consortium of six universities, including Politecnico the Milano of Italy, Brunel University of UK, and the Aegean University of Greece as European partners and IIIT Delhi & RIMT University, Punjab, as partners from India. The project will be supported by Crethidev from Europe. Building innovation capacities in the design sector in India is the primary aim of the proposal submitted by WUD. The proposal will seek to address the lack of suit- INSTITUTE WATCH There are universities that offer courses in lexicography and its related fields. Some institutes in India offering courses are: ■ Deccan College, Pune ■ Punjabi University, Patiala ■ University of Madras ■ Bharathiar University, Coimbatore ■ Central University, Kerala lish or any other concerned language. To advance in this field, you should pursue advanced master’s degree or diploma in lexicography/ linguistics. An advanced degree in English, language translation, or a language other than English will be an added advantage for getting knowledge, experience and more flexibility with the usage of words. Job prospects ISTOCK social media. ■ Get involved with web design and SEO (searchengine optimisation) to ensure that web traffic grows. ■ Come up with ways to increase user engagement with the resource. Getting in There are no specific educational requirements for lexicographers. Most jobs in this field are for those with at least a bachelor’s / master’s degree, often with a major in linguistics or Eng- Design: The next destinationfor creative minds Dr Sanjay Gupta, Vice-Chancellor, World University of Design UK; Emily Carr University of Art & Design & Vancouver Film School, Canada; École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT), France; and College of Creative Studies, USA. WUD offers the country's largest range of creative courses. In an interaction, Dr Sanjay Gupta, Vice-Chancellor of the university, shares how design education is gaining traction in the country. Excerpts: ably trained graduates for a rapidly expanding labour market segment expected to require high numbers of new designers by 2020. Besides Erasmus, the university has international collaborations with foreign universities like University of Huddersfield, Oxford Brookes University, Why is there a sudden surge in demand for designers and those with creative skills? Indian design industry has evolved rapidly in the recent times. Consumer demand and increasing spending power has been instrumental in driving this shift. For an evolving hybrid economy, IN CONVERSATION c m y b Most jobs for lexicographers are with publishing companies, colleges or universities. They can work with senior editors, researchers, data entry clerks, subject matter experts or other lexicographers. Some of these include: ■ Cambridge University Press ■ Collins ■ Macmillan ■ Merriam-Webster (US dictionary) ■ Pearson/Longman. While openings for lexicographers are limited, the demand is increasing with the development of digital technology particularly in areas of artificial intelligence, information sciences, and computer applica- it is important to focus on design. As the Indian economy grows, we will witness a greater demand for design professionals to create that competitive edge. The Indian industry has begun to appreciate the value-addition capabilities of design and innovation. Although, the demand for creative people has galloped, supply has not kept the same pace. With this realisation, creative courses have begun to find their place as a mainstream career option and have led to the sudden surge in demand. What are the new avenues and careers in this field? Design is a rewarding career option as four years of toil equips students with a perfect amalgamation of theoretical and practical design skills that can help them bag an attractive job offer. The four main disciplines of the design domain are: product design, fashion design, interior design, and communication design, besides many sub-specialisations. There are ample job openings available in the private and public sector for qualified design graduates and postgraduates. Graduates can seek employment with a plethora tions in natural language processing, machine learning, computer translations and other high-technology activities. Many software houses, universities and other research institutes are now more open to recruiting trained lexicographers for work that is often carried out by computer scientists or other related disciplines. The knowledge of an additional language is also useful in this field for work with social and welfare organisations dealing with literacy, linguistic problems of ethnic minorities, and other development issues. A number of projects and institutes around the world are looking for linguists and multilingual experts and lexicographers to work with language consultants to document, analyse, and preserve languages (many of which are endangered), and also to conduct language surveys, and translate documents of cultural heritage. Some lexicographers move into research or follow an academic career. Academic research at PhD level can be in lexicography and related areas such as lexicol- of big, medium and small organisations in the private sector. Lately, multinational giants such as Microsoft, TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Sap Labs, Cognizant, and Infosys have also been hiring talented design ogy, lexical semantics and the history of the English at some universities. So, if this looks like an interesting field of work, the best way to find out if this is the right career, try getting some work experience with a publishing company in a related area such as editing or proofreading which is valuable. This experience will give you an insight into the publishing sector, as well as helping you build up your knowledge, skills and contacts. Some publishing houses offer on the job training to beginners in this field for making online dictionaries and e-books. By this, one can acquire knowledge about various specialist software packages and databases used in lexicography. Other useful activities include: ■ Writing for or editing your university newspaper. ■ Creating and writing your own blog. ■ Take short courses in areas such as editing, proofreading, SEO, social media and lexicography. So go ahead, find out if being completely submerged in a world of words is your dream career! graduates in big numbers. Opportunities have also opened up in the government organisations and institutions through competitive exams such as UPSC, SSC, PSC, etc. Continued on page 3
The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). It was started by Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia, a public-spirited philanthropist, and is run by a trust comprising four eminent persons as trustees.
The Tribune, the largest selling daily in North India, publishes news and views without any bias or prejudice of any kind. Restraint and moderation, rather than agitational language and partisanship, are the hallmarks of the paper. It is an independent newspaper in the real sense of the term.
The English edition apart, the 133-year-old Tribune has two sister publications, Punjabi Tribune (in Punjabi) and Dainik Tribune (in Hindi).