24082023-TTC-01.qxd 8/24/2023 1:25 AM Page 1 13 CHANDIGARH | GURUGRAM | JALANDHAR | BATHINDA | VOL. 7 NO. 233 | 18 PAGES | ~5.00 | REGD. NO. CHD/0006/2021-2023 ESTABLISHED IN 1881 WAGNER CHIEF FEARED DEAD IN JET CRASH IN RUSSIA WORLD /thetribunechd OUR EFFORT NOT JUST TO CONTAIN BUT END TERRORISM: DGP J&K ADANI GROUP’S EBITDA PRAGG, CARLSEN SET GROWS 42% IN Q1, HITS THE STAGE FOR GRAND ALL-TIME HIGH BUSINESS TIE-BREAKER SPORT thursday | 24 august 2023 /thetribunechd www.tribuneindia.com India scripts history as ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 lands on moon Charts flawless 41-day voyage to soft-land on shadowy south pole Joins elite club of US, erstwhile Soviet Union, China with feat PM connects from BRICS summit; dials ISRO chief, lauds success MOONMENTOUS India on moon: ISRO chiefhails touchdown with commands from the Mission Control Complex at New Delhi, August 23 the ISRO Telemetry TrackThe Indian Space Research ing and Control Centre Organisation (ISRO) today (ISTRAC) at Bengaluru. scripted history with its ChanWhen the “powered descent” drayaan-3 spacecraft success- or the final journey of the lanfully landing on the lunar der module (with the rover south pole, making India the inside it) for the lunar surface first country in the world to began today, the height of the achieve soft landing on the spacecraft was 30 km above water-rich region of the moon. the moon. Starting at 5.45 pm, With the success of the mis- the lander touched down on sion, India today joined the the lunar surface around 6.03 elite club of nations that have pm. This was a completely been able to gently land their autonomous operation with spacecraft on the commands already moon. Only three preloaded on the countries — the computers on US, erstwhile Soviboard the lander. et Union and China The descent was — have so far divided into three achieved the feat. phases — rough In a post on X, ISRO braking phase, attisaid: “Chandrayaan-3 tude holding phase has successfully soft and fine braking landed on the moon. phase. The first Congratulations phase, also the S Somanath, ISRO chief India”. In another lengthiest (over 11 post attributed to Chandrayaan- minutes), saw the reduction of 3, ISRO said: “Chandrayaan-3 the velocity of the descent of Mission: India, I reached my des- “Vikram” from 1,680 metre per tination and you too”. second to 358 metre per second. Launched first in an elliptiThe orientation of the cal orbit around the earth on spacecraft was changed from July 14, the spacecraft, com- horizontal to vertical during prising a package of propul- the next phase. In the last sion module and the Vikram phase, the velocity of descent lander with the Pragyan of the spacecraft was rover inside it, was inserted reduced to zero as it gently into the lunar orbit on touched the lunar surface. August 5. The propulsion People watching the live module was separated from telecast of the event organised the lander on August 17. at the CSIR auditorium here While the propulsion mod- erupted in joy once the spaceule continues to orbit the craft settled down on the lunar moon, the distance of the lan- surface. Similar scenes were continued on page 10 der’s orbit around the moon edit: the lunar leap was reduced progressively Shubhadeep Choudhury Tribune News Service NEXT STEP: PRAGYAN ROLLOUT FROM LANDER PRAGYAN ROVER The Pragyan rover will now roll out of Vikram lander following touchdown on the lunar surface. The launch will, however, take time as the rover has to wait for the dust, kicked up during landing, to settle down. If rover rolls out before the dust dissipates, it may damage cameras and other equipment on it. VICTORY CALL This moment is unforgettable. It is phenomenal, it is the call of a developed India. It is the victory call for a new India. Bill Nelson, ADMINISTRATOR, NASA IT’S INCREDIBLE Incredible! What a way to demonstrate new technologies and achieve first soft landing on another celestial body. Well done, thoroughly impressed. Narendra Modi, Prime Minister THE TRIBUNE LUNAR ODYSSEY CHANDIGARH | THURSDAY | 24 AUGUST 2023 09 J Aschbacher, EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY C H A N D R AYA A N - 3 L A N D S S A F E LY MAIN PARTS SOURCED FROM HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LTD Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) congratulated the ISRO for the significant feat. The HAL also released a picture detailing its own work with ISRO by contributing metallic and composite structures, all propellant tanks and bus structure for rover and lander which have gone in Chandrayaan-3. BHUBANESWAR NOIDA-BASED START-UP POWERS EYES OF ROVER SPECIAL PRAYERS ACROSS INDIA BEFORE TOUCHDOWN With the Pragyaan rover poised to navigate the moon, its eyes to traverse the crater-filled lunar surface will be powered by a Noida-based tech start-up. Omnipresent Robot Technologies has developed Perception Navigation Software for the Pragyaan rover that is housed in the Vikram landing module. AHMEDABAD People in several parts of the country held special prayers at temples, mosques and gurdwaras on Wednesday for the successful landing of Chandrayaan-3 on the moon. People also gathered in educational institutions, offices and city squares to watch live telecast of the final lunar descent. NEW DELHI IMPRESSIVE PROGRESS This is a long stride in exploration of outer space and, of course, evidence of impressive progress made by India in science and engineering. INDIAGENOUS MIRACLE ISRO chief highlights world-class made-in-India components, sets sights on Mars, Venus REACHING FOR THE MOON ■ JULY 14, 2023 LVM3 M4 vehicle launches Chandrayaan-3 into orbit from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh ■ JULY 15 First orbit-raising manoeuvre (Earthbound firing-1) successfully performed; spacecraft in 41,762 km x 173 km orbit ■ JULY 17 Second orbit-raising manoeuvre performed; spacecraft in 41,603 km x 226 km orbit ■ JULY 22 Another orbit-raising manoeuvre completed using earth-bound perigee firing ■ JULY 25 ISRO performs one more orbit-raising manoeuvre; spacecraft in 71,351 km x 233 km orbit ■ AUGUST 1 ISRO inserts the spacecraft into translunar orbit; the orbit achieved is 288 km x 3,69,328 km ■ AUGUST 5 Lunar-orbit insertion done; orbit achieved is 164 km x 18,074 km, as intended ■ AUGUST 6 Second lunarbound phase (LBN) performed; spacecraft is in a 170 km x 4,313 km orbit around the moon; video of moon as viewed by Chandrayaan-3 during lunar orbit insertion released ■ AUGUST 9 Chandrayaan-3’s orbit reduced to 174 km x 1,437 km after a manoeuvre is performed ■ AUGUST 14 Mission is in orbit circularisation phase after another manoeuvre; spacecraft is in 151 km x 179 km orbit ■ AUGUST 16 Spacecraft brought down to an orbit of 153 km x 163 km after firing is completed ■ AUGUST 17 Lander module is successfully separated from the propulsion module ■ AUGUST 19 ISRO performs de-boosting of the lander module to reduce its orbit; lander module is in 113 km x 157 km orbit around the moon ■ AUGUST 20 One more de-boosting or orbit reduction manoeuvre on the lander module is performed; lander module is in 25 km x 134 km orbit AUGUST 21 Chandrayaan-2 orbiter formally welcomes Chandrayaan-3 lander module saying ‘Welcome, buddy!’; two-way communication established ■ Mission Operations Complex (MOX) now has more ways to communicate with the lander module ■ AUGUST 22 ISRO releases images of the moon captured by the Chandrayaan-3’s lander position detection camera (LPDC) from an altitude of 70 km; system undergoes regular checks, smooth sailing continues ■ AUGUST 23 Soft landing of Chandrayaan-3’s lander module on moon’s south pole successful at 6.04 PM Bengaluru, August23 ISRO Chairman S Somanath on Wednesday toasted the success of the Chandrayaan-3 mission, crediting it to the “pain and agony” of all scientists who persevered on it, and expressed confidence that the space agency would similarly land a spacecraft on Mars in the coming years. Acknowledging the contribution of a generation of leadership by the scientists of the country’s space agency for the Chandrayaan-3 mission’s success, he said this is an “incremental progress” and “definitely a huge one”. The journey to the moon is tough and soft-landing is difficult for any nation to achieve today even with the advancement of technology, he said, pointing out that India achieved it in just two missions. Chandrayaan-2, the first mission with the objective of soft landing on the moon had a narrow miss, while the Chandrayaan-3 mission was perfectly executed. Chandrayaan-1’s objective was only to place an unmanned spacecraft in an orbit around the moon. “It (success of Chandrayaan-3 mission) gives confidence to configure missions to not only go to the moon, but also to go to Mars, sometimes (perhaps) land on Mars, may be in future go to Venus and other planets...,” he said. Undertaking the Chandrayaan-3 mission was difficult, he said. Key scientists behind Chandrayaan-2 were also part of the Chandrayaan-3 team, he said. “Most of the people who were with Chandrayaan-2 are with us helping us to do Chandrayaan-3. They are a part of this, they have gone through such an agony...” “...the technology that we have in Chandrayaan-3 is no less complex or inferior to any other technology that goes to the moon. So, we have the best of the sensors of the world, best in class (equipment) in Chandrayaan3,” he said, explaining that it was a completely ‘Made-inIndia’ mission using worldclass components. Conveying the greetings of PM Modi, he said, “The Honourable PM called me and conveyed his greetings to each one of you and your family for the wonderful work.” Addressing the ISRO team, he thanked all those who prayed for the mission’s success, and in particular named ISRO veterans like A S Kiran Kumar (ISRO exchief). “They have been helping so much, they were part of the team to help them (team) to get the confidence and get the reviews done, and to ensure that nothing goes with any mistakes,” he said. — PTI ESTIMATED COST OF CHANDRAYAAN-3 MISSION 14 EARTH DAYS OR 1 LUNAR NIGHT THE LANDER AND THE SIXWHEELED ROVER ARE DESIGNED TO OPERATE 1,752 KG TOTAL MASS OF THE LANDER AND THE SIX-WHEELED ROVER COST LESS THAN ‘BARBIE’, ‘OPPENHEIMER’ ~1,196 CR ~825 CR cost of Hollywood hit ‘Barbie’ ~615 CRORE ROVER JOB The 26-kg rover is armed with a spectrometer to analyse lunar soil and rocks, and a laser-induced spectroscope to derive their chemical composition LANDER budget of Christopher Nolan’s ‘Oppenheimer’ ~700 cr spent on mythological action film ‘Adipurush’ ROVER Chandrayaan-3’s success heralds India’s new flight into space, testifies that we can all aspire for the moon and beyond… The country will forever remember this day. It will inspire us to move towards a bright future. It will show us the path to the realisation of our dreams. This day is testimony to how we can win after drawing lessons from loss NARENDRA MODI, PRIME MINISTER ‘Sky’s not the limit’: PM lauds scientists Aditi Tandon Tribune News Service New Delhi, August 23 As India made history on Wednesday by becoming the first country in the world to land a spacecraft on the lunar south pole, Prime Minister Narendra Modi described the success as “not just India’s but entire humanity’s” and said it testified that “we can all aspire for the moon and beyond”. PM Modi, currently in South Africa for the 15th BRICS Summit, joined fellow Indians in hailing the historic moment in which Vikram lander and Pragyan rover touched down on the moon’s water-rich southern region catapulting India to a select club of countries—US, China dR i h h i PM Narendra Modi reacts after the lander touched down on the moon. landing on the lunar surface. “We took a pledge on the earth and accomplished it on the moon. India is now on the moon, as our scientists have said. Today we have witnessed India’s new flight in space,” a visibly elated Prime Minister said, terming the moment as “unforgettable, unprecedented and timeless, one that sigl b i ht t t t A it centenary of Independence”. Congratulating ISRO scientists for their tireless striving through years leading to the making of history today, the PM said, “India’s successful moon mission is not just India’s alone. This is a year in which the world is witnessing India’s G20 presidency. Our approach of ‘O E th O F il O the globe. This human-centric approach that we present and represent has been welcomed universally. Our moon mission is also based on the same human-centric approach. Therefore, this success belongs to all of humanity and it will help moon missions by other countries in the future.” Citing ISRO’s achievement, the PM said all countries, including those from the global south, were capable of achieving such feats. “We can all aspire for the moon and beyond,” he said, lauding scientists for taking India to the lunar south pole where no nation has ever reached. The PM said the Chandrayaan-3’s success heralded the rise of a developed, new India and sigll d ti l it t ISRO flight goes back six decades Aditi Tandon Tribune News Service NewDelhi, August23 It was in August of 1961, at the urging of Homi Bhabha, then chairman of Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), that space research was first identified as key area for national research and incorporated into the AEC mandate. Soon, Ahmedabad-based Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), led by Vikram Sarabhai, another Cambridgereturned scientist like Bhabha, was selected to nurture the nascent space science. first PM Jawaharlal Nehru at the helm, PRL was co-opted into th AECb d di F b MISSION’S DOYENS ■ In 1961, at the urging of then Atomic Energy Commission chairman Homi Bhabha, space research was first identified as key area for research ■ Vikram Sarabhai-led centre was next selected to house and nurture space science ■ After Sarabhai’s untimely demise, Satish Dhawan was given the charge to head India’s space programme MORE INSIDE A portion of the landing site on the surface of the moon as seen by a Chandrayaan-3 camera after its successful descent. PTI Minds that made mission possible Tribune News Service New Delhi, August 23 ISRO Chairman S Somanath is considered the key person behind Chandrayaan-3. Somanath served as the Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre and the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre — both dedicated to the development of rocket technologies for ISRO. Besides Chandrayaan-3, other major missions being readied under Somanath’s supervision are Aditya-L1 (to the sun) and Gaganyaan (India’s first human space mission). P Veeramuthuvel became the Director of the Chandrayaan-3 project in 2019. He worked as a Deputy Director at the Space Infrastructure Programme Office of ISRO. He also played an important role in the Chandrayaan-2 mission, India’s second moon misson, which went out of control and crashlanded on the lunar surface. Veeramuthuvel is an alumnus of the Indian Institute of Tech- ❝ GLAD TO BE PARTNER Congratulations to ISRO... and congratulations to India on being 4th country to softland a spacecraft on moon. We’re glad to be your partner on this mission! Vladimir Putin, RUSSIAN PRESIDENT India ensured front-row seat in global space club Dinesh C Sharma Scientists celebrate at ISRO’s control room on Wednesday. PTI nology, Madras. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark-III, which was renamed the Launch Vehicle Mark-III rocket that carried the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft (comprising the propulsion module and the lander module with the rover inside it), was developed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre at Thumba in Kerala’s Thiruvananthapuram under the supervision of S Unnikrishnan Nair, chief of the centre. Nair and his team are in charge of various key functions of the crucial mission. M Sankaran, Director at the UR Rao Satellite Centre, assumed the role in June 2021. The centre built the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft. Associate Project Director Kalpana Kalahasti kept the Chandrayaan-3 team working despite the hardships of the Covid pandemic. An engineer who has dedicated her life to making India’s satellites, she continued on page 10 ARCHITECTS BEHIND CHANDRAYAAN-3 SUCCESS S SOMANATH, ISRO CHAIRMAN P VEERAMUTHUVEL PROJECT DIRECTOR S UNNIKRISHNAN NAIR CHIEF, VIKRAM SARABHAI SPACE CENTRE M SANKARAN DIRECTOR, UR RAO SATELLITE CENTRE M SRIKANTH MISSION OPERATIONS DIRECTOR KALPANA KALAHASTI ASSOCIATE PROJECT DIRECTOR Bengaluru, August 23 The successful touchdown of the Vikram lander on the moon is a testament to India’s scientific and technological capabilities built over the decades, and it ensures India a front-row seat in the global space club, which is witnessing rapid changes. After the glitch faced by Chandrayaan-2, which resulted in the loss of the lander a little over four years ago, ISRO scientists went back to the drawing board to design a near fail-safe mission. They incorporated several new features and redundancies in the crucial phase of ‘power descent’ of the lander — two cameras for hazard detection instead of one, improved algorithm (for control, navigation and guidance) to spot a perfect site for landing, changes in the central engine, etc. All this gave ISRO scientists the confidence to make the surprising claim that In 2019, ISRO went back to drawing board to design fail-safe mission Vikram would land even if everything were to fail. For any spacefaring nation interested in exploring deep space, achieving the technologically challenging soft landing capability is a critical milestone. Since 2019, when Chandrayaan-2 failed, missions sent by Japan, Israel, and the UAE (launched by a Japanese company) have failed to soft-land on the lunar surface. The latest to miss the moon was the Russian mission last week, though the erstwhile USSR and Russia have had many successful soft-landing and ‘sample return’ missions in the past. More flights — such as Japan’s SLIM, or Smart Lander for Investigating Moon — are headed to the continued on page 10 Court indicts Sajjan in gurdwara burning case Pong, Bhakra levels up, Rain claims 7 lives in HP, 2 missing; PMfor expanding BRICS, Punjab put on high alert landslips bring Shimla to standstill joint exploration of space NEW DELHI: A court has framed Ruchika M Khanna charges against Congress leader Sajjan Kumar in a case related to the burning of a gurdwara during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. INSIDE Tribune News Service IN BRIEF 18 die as railway bridge collapses in Mizoram NEW DELHI: Eighteen workers were killed after an under-construction railway bridge collapsed in Mizoram's Aizawl district on Wednesday. BACK PAGE Govt: Board exams to be conducted twice a year NEW DELHI: The Centre on Wednesday said board examinations will be conducted twice a year and students will get an option to retain their best score. BACK PAGE Tribune News Service Chandigarh, August 23 Punjab is on high alert as the water inflow into two dams — Pong and Bhakra — has begun to increase again, raising their water level. This necessitated the release of more water from the two dams today as compared to yesterday. Schools across the state have been closed from today till August 26. The situation has arisen once again because of incessant rain in neighbouring Himachal Pradesh, specifi- DAM BHAKRA PONG MAX LEVEL 1,680 FT 1,390 FT Rain in catchment areas in HP may spell more trouble cally in the catchment area of the two dams. As a result, the water level in the Pong Dam has again reached the maximum level of 1,390 ft. The inflow into the dam has increased by over two times — from 58,702 cusecs yesterday to 1,38,674 cusecs this evening. This has forced the authorities to release more continued on page 10 CURRENT LEVEL 1,674.18 FT 1,390.01 FT OUTFLOW* 58,400 67,340 (* IN CUSECS) Tribune News Service Shimla, August 23 At least seven persons have died and two are missing following heavy rain across the state since Tuesday night. The deaths have occurred in Mandi and Shimla districts. While five persons died in separate incidents of landslide and flashflood in Mandi district, a couple from Jharkhand was buried alive in a landslide at a village in Mashobra near Shimla. Two people are missing in Mandi. Apart from claiming seven lives, the downpour and subsequent landslides brought life to a standstill in the affected areas, particularly in Shimla. While still struggling New Delhi, August 23 Prime Minister Narendra Modi backed the expansion of BRICS to include other nations, and on the accession of Chandrayaan’s soft landing on the moon, suggested the creation of a BRICS Space Exploration Consortium to work in areas like space research and weather monitoring. BRICS is already working on the BRICS satellite constellation. “India fully supports the expansion of the BRICS membership and welcomes moving forward with consensus in this,” he said. The unanimity among BRICS members in this respect paves the The bridge connecting Baddi to Haryana caved in after rain. TRIBUNE PHOTO HARSH STEPS MUST TO CURB ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTION: CM HP CM Sukhvinder Singh Sukhu says some harsh steps such as restricting construction along rivers, checking illegal buildings and regulating mining will have to be taken to ensure public safety. INSIDE to come to terms with the fatal landslides that claimed around 25 lives last week, the state capital relived the hor- Today’s issue is of 18 pages, including four-page Jalandhar Tribune. c m y b ror of landslides (minus the loss of lives) and huge deodar trees falling on houses and continued on page 10 STRESSES SKILL DEVELOPMENT ■ PM proposes cooperation in education, skill development and technology to make BRICS a “future-ready organisation” ■ Wants BRICS to do skills mapping together to identify each other’s strengths & complement each other in development initiatives way for discussions on a mechanism for opening the doors to new members. With nearly two dozen countries having lined up for membership, such a formal process currently does not exist. Speaking at the BRICS continued on page 10
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